PARADISE – Privacy-enhancing Technologies in a Doping Control Use-Case
PARADISE is a multidisciplinary project that seeks to promote and guarantee the overall privacy, security, and usability of the anti-doping coordination platform. At the same time, the PARADISE system also aims to improve the quality of doping controls while retaining their reliability and unpredictability. Back in 2012, Jonas Plass —former 400m runner and German national track and field team member— came up with the notion of developing an additional system that utilized location- based services- called »eves« to complement the already existing »ADAMS«. Mr. Plass and Dr. Denis Giffeler (gekko mbH) thus designed a fully detailed concept, which would lead them to set up a research project comprising expertise from a wide array of backgrounds. Working alongside firms and institutions such as Fraunhofer Gesellschaft’s institutes FIT and AISEC, Technical University Berlin, the Independent Centre for Privacy, Schleswig Holstein, and Uniscon GmbH, they expanded the original idea developing a prototype which integrates »eves« as a capability that athletes can voluntarily utilize. In 2016, PARADISE was granted funding by the German government within a Data Privacy Call of the Ministry of Education and
Research to further develop their project. Hence, the key topics PARADISE addresses are control quality, data privacy, usability and security. In sum, PARADISE addresses some of the main criticism made about the current control system and improves athletes’ acceptance.
To begin with, athletes carry a GPS and GSM-equipped wearable (the device called »eves«). Once a DCO has received a control order for an athlete, the DCO can use the PARADISE platform to request the athlete’s current whereabouts. Athletes still have to introduce additional data into ADAMS, but instead of entering exact addresses, it will now be enough for them to indicate the city where they are to be found. This increases privacy for the athletes while simultaneously allowing DCO to plan their travels in advance. DCO can thus find out the exact location of the athletes they need to control via »eves« on the day the actual control will take place. The idea is to make the use of »eves« a choice for athletes. Those athletes who are not comfortable with carrying the device will continue registering their whereabouts just like they had been doing with ADAMS. The use of established localization-based technologies, GPS, and GSM, makes the system potentially usable worldwide.
Overall, the underlying principles of PARADISE are in agreement with Europe’s General Data Protection Regulation, fostering both data minimization and respect for the principle of dedicated use. Indeed, because of the protocolling system PARADISE implements, both athletes and DCO achieve full transparency. While DCO can obtain an overview of past actions within the system, athletes whose control has already been successfully completed will similarly gain insights about any requests of their personal position. These are qualities that enable athletes and DCO to take the right to information to the next level. Additionally, however, general geo-fences for places of high privacy such as churches, hospitals, or cemeteries will be introduced into the system; yet athletes will have the ability to add further geofences where they will not be trackable with a high-precision position. By these means, DCO will get an approximate location of the designated area the athlete is in, but will need to call the athlete directly in order to request a more precise location. This way, an athlete’s privacy is always maintained, while contact-to-control times are greatly reduced. Furthermore, PARADISE is hosted in Germany, underlying the afore-mentioned General Data Protection Regulation applicable from May 2018 onwards, but the system could also be implemented and run worldwide on the servers of NADOs.
One of the goals of the entire system is to make anti-doping control easier and more efficient. »Eves« users will need to introduce much less data concerning their whereabouts and daily habits, which will therefore make constant updates redundant. As a consequence, athletes will be able to focus their attention on their performance, minimizing the impact that the doping-control system has on their ability to do so. Therefore, the location-based service client »eves« seeks to offer an additional tool to DCO that will promote quicker meet-ups with athletes. This will prevent unnecessary waiting and time-consuming athlete »hunting«. And so, time between call and meeting will be drastically reduced.